Patan Durbar Square : History, Culture, Architecture

  • Karan
  • May 8, 2024

Table of Contents

A UNESCO World Heritage Site and popular destination for a Kathmandu Sightseeing Tour, Patan Durbar Plaza is situated in Lalitpur, Nepal. It is a collection of historic structures from the 16th and 18th centuries, including temples, palaces, courtyards, and other structures. The square is a popular tourist destination and is regarded as one of the best examples of Newari architecture anywhere in the world.

In the third century BC, Patan Durbar Square was known as Lalitapattan. It was a small town then. Throughout the medieval era, when the Malla dynasty ruled, it developed into a significant hub of trade and culture. The splendid temples and palaces that still survive there were built by the Malla monarchs, who were great supporters of the arts.

Many significant religious buildings can be seen in the area, including the Buddhist Mahaboudha Temple and the three-story Krishna Mandir, both of which are dedicated to the Hindu god Krishna. The Taleju Temple, the Bhimsen Temple, and the Golden Temple are some of the other noteworthy structures in the square.

In addition to its historical and cultural significance, Patan Durbar Square is noteworthy for its role in safeguarding the ancient Newari culture's art, architecture, and way of life. The square is a representation of Nepal's rich cultural heritage and a crucial location for promoting travel and preserving traditional arts and crafts.

History of Patan Durbar Square

The Malla dynasty, which ruled over the Kathmandu Valley from the 12th to the 18th century, is reflected in the square in terms of both architectural and aesthetic excellence.

The Malla kings constructed the palaces, temples, and courtyards in Patan Durbar Square to demonstrate their authority and dignity. They were created to act as hubs for both religious and cultural activities. Although many of these structures have undergone renovation or restoration throughout the years, they nevertheless have historical and cultural significance.

The three-story Lord Krishna temple known as the Krishna Mandir is one of the most significant buildings in the square. The temple is constructed in the Shikhara architectural style and has elaborate carvings of Hindu deities and mythological characters.

Together with numerous palaces, the area is home to the Patan Museum, which originally served as the Malla monarchs' home. The museum features a wide variety of relics and exhibitions that highlight the Kathmandu Valley's art, culture, and history.

The Patan Durbar Square is home to several courtyards, including Mul Chowk and Sundari Chowk, in addition to the palaces and temples. Public gatherings, religious rites, and other cultural activities took place in these courtyards.

Overall, Patan Durbar Square represents the rich heritage and aesthetic brilliance of the Malla dynasty and is a key cultural and historical site in Nepal. The area continues to be a significant cultural hub and is a testimony to the historical architectural and artistic accomplishments.

Architecture and Design

The Shikhara-style temple building is one of Patan Durbar Square's most recognizable architectural elements. Its design is characterized by tall, curved roofs with detailed carvings and ornaments that resemble mountain peaks. The two most significant Shikhara-style temples in the square are the Krishna Mandir and Vishwanath Temple.

The Newari architectural style, which is distinguished by exquisite woodcarvings, brickwork, and terra-cotta ornamentation, is another architectural type that can be observed in Patan Durbar Square. Its design is well-exemplified in the Mahaboudha Temple, which has beautiful tilework that shows Buddhist symbols and texts.

Also, there are buildings in the plaza that exhibit the Mughal, Buddhist, and Hindu influences on architecture. For instance, the Golden Temple combines Buddhist and Hindu architectural elements, while the Sundari Chowk, a courtyard in the square, has Mughal-style embellishments and arches.

Patan Durbar Plaza is renowned for its beautiful carvings and sculptures in addition to its many architectural styles. Images of Hindu and Buddhist deities, as well as themes from mythology and daily life, are depicted in the temples and structures in the plaza. The carvings and sculptures offer an insight into the cultural and religious customs of the Kathmandu Valley as well as demonstrating the talent and craftsmanship of the craftsmen who made them.

Temples and Monuments

Several notable temples and monuments, each with its own specific religious and cultural significance, can be found at Patan Durbar Square. This is a list of some of the square's most significant temples and monuments:

One of the most renowned temples in Patan Durbar Square is the Krishna Temple. It was constructed in the 17th century and is devoted to Lord Krishna, a revered Hindu deity. The temple is a must-see site in the square due to its magnificent carvings and artwork.

Taleju Bhawani Temple: The goddess Taleju Bhawani, who is revered as the guardian deity of the Malla monarchs of the Kathmandu Valley, is the subject of this temple. It is a three-story temple with lovely carvings, and from its top floor, you can have a great view of the square.

Golden Temple: The Golden Temple, also called Hiranya Varna Mahavihar, is a Buddhist temple that was founded in the 12th century. Its walls are embellished with elaborate murals and paintings that commemorate the life of Lord Buddha, and its roofs are decorated with gold plating.

Sundari Chowk: The Patan Museum's Sundari Chowk is a palace courtyard containing a monument of King Siddhi Narsingh Malla and is encircled by exquisitely carved windows and doors.

Mul Chowk: Located in Patan Durbar Square, Mul Chowk is a different royal courtyard that is home to several temples and shrines. The beautiful carvings and colorful artwork in the courtyard are well renowned.

In Patan Durbar Square, there are ceremonies and traditions specific to each shrine and monument. For instance, during the yearly Dashain festival, worshippers sacrifice animals to the goddess at Taleju Bhawani Temple. Similar rites are carried out by Buddhist monks at the Golden Temple, including chanting and meditation.

Overall, the temples and buildings in Patan Durbar Square offer a fascinating look into Nepal's extensive religious and cultural past. For anybody interested in Nepal's history and culture, these temples are a must-visit destination because of their detailed carvings, beautiful architecture, and spiritual importance.

Culture and Traditions

The Patan Durbar Square hosts a variety of cultural activities and events all year long in addition to being a historical and architectural monument. Many festivals, cultural events, and customary celebrations that are significant to the local community's culture are held on the square.

The Kumari Jatra, also known as the Living Goddess Festival, is one of the most important occasions hosted in Patan Durbar Square. It is an occasion to honor the Kumari, a living goddess who stands in for the benevolent god who guards the Kathmandu Valley. The celebration, which includes processions, dances, and music, is popular with both locals and visitors.

The Machhindranath Jatra, also known as the Rain God's chariot procession, is a significant celebration that takes place during the monsoon season. A massive wooden chariot is paraded through the streets of Patan as part of the festival's grand celebrations.

In addition to these festivities, Patan Durbar Square also plays host to Newari cultural traditions such as the Gai Jatra, Indra Jatra, and Bisket Jatra. The Newari community celebrates these festivals, which are significant to their cultural identity, with traditional dances, music, and rituals.

Patan Durbar Plaza is well-known for its traditional arts and crafts in addition to its cultural events and festivals. The region is well known for its woodcarving, weaving, ceramics, metallurgy, and pottery. These traditional arts have been practiced by the local craftspeople and artists for ages, and their products are highly sought after both domestically and abroad.

One of the most well-known local crafts is pottery, and the artisans there still employ the same methods and equipment that have been handed down through the years. Another historic craft in the region is weaving, which is known for its silk and cotton textiles. Another notable craft in the region is metalwork, where talented artisans fashion beautiful sculptures and designs from bronze, copper, and brass.

Tourism and Conservation

Due to rising tourism and urbanization, Patan Durbar Square is currently dealing with several difficulties. The infrastructure in the region is under stress from the increasing number of visitors, and the cultural and historical significance of the square is in danger of being undermined by the growing demand for contemporary amenities and conveniences.

The effects of urbanization are one of Patan Durbar Square's main problems. The square's traditional architecture and historical landmarks are being encroached upon as a result of the expanding population and the need for modern infrastructure. The infrastructure of the square has been strained by the development of contemporary structures and facilities nearby, leading to problems like traffic congestion and pollution.

Another important aspect of the problems facing Patan Durbar Square is tourism. The region's infrastructure and resources are under stress due to the growing number of visitors, which has resulted in problems like littering and damage to historical landmarks. A surge in the desire for modern services and facilities has also been brought on by the increase in tourists, which may conflict with the square's traditional architecture and cultural history.

Many efforts have been made to maintain and preserve the cultural history of Patan Durbar Plaza. To conserve historical sites and traditional architecture, the federal government and municipal governments have put restrictions into place.

The local neighborhoods in Patan have also made efforts to conserve its cultural legacy through programs like festivals and workshops for traditional crafts. To lessen the detrimental effects of tourism on the region's cultural heritage and ecosystem, initiatives are also being undertaken to promote sustainable tourism and responsible travel habits.

Tourists can engage in responsible tourism to help Patan Durbar Square's conservation initiatives. This can entail preserving the region's cultural heritage, refraining from littering and endangering historic sites, and assisting neighborhood establishments that support eco-friendly travel. To lessen the burden on the area's resources and infrastructure, tourists may want to visit the square during off-peak times.

Challenges and Preservation Efforts

The preservation of Patan Durbar Square is seriously threatened by natural disasters like earthquakes and floods. The region is prone to earthquakes, and previous quakes have significantly damaged the monuments and structures in the square. Moreover, the infrastructure of the square may be eroded by flooding and excessive rain.

Patan Durbar Plaza must also contend with urbanization. The traditional architecture and historic sites of the square are being encroached upon as a result of the expanding population and the need for modern infrastructure. The infrastructure of the square has been strained by the development of contemporary structures and facilities nearby, leading to problems like traffic congestion and pollution.

Another major issue facing Patan Durbar Square is neglect. The structures and monuments in the square have historically been neglected when it comes to upkeep and restoration, which has led to degradation and destruction.

Notwithstanding these difficulties, Patan Durbar Plaza is being protected through preservation initiatives. To protect the historical landmarks on the square and to repair the damage brought on by natural calamities, restoration work has been underway. The preservation of the square's cultural legacy has also been greatly aided by community involvement, as seen by projects like cultural festivals and workshops for traditional crafts.

For future generations to understand and value their history and culture, cultural heritage places like Patan Durbar Square must be preserved. These locations serve as a reminder of the history and development of a town. Maintaining these locations also helps to preserve our collective cultural past on a global scale.

How can I reach Patan Durbar Square?

Lalitpur district, which is about 5 kilometers south of central Kathmandu, Nepal's capital city, is where you can find Patan Durbar Plaza. Here are a few options for getting to Patan Durbar Square:

Via taxi: Both Lalitpur and Kathmandu have plenty of taxis available. To go to Patan Durbar Square, you can take a taxi from Kathmandu or Lalitpur. Negotiating the fare before you set out on your journey is advised.

By local bus: At Ratna Park Bus Station in Kathmandu, you can take a local bus to Patan. Buses run frequently, and the trip takes 30 to 45 minutes. The distance to Patan Durbar Square from the bus station is only a short stroll.

Via motorbike or bicycle: You can also hire a motorbike or bicycle to get to Patan Durbar Square. If you want to explore the neighboring places as well, this is a fantastic choice.

You can get to Patan Durbar Square on foot if you are staying in Kathmandu or Lalitpur. From Lalitpur or the heart of Kathmandu, the walk will take roughly 30 to 45 minutes.

It is significant to remember that, particularly during peak hours, the roads in Kathmandu and Lalitpur can be backed up. Planning your route appropriately and giving yourself enough time to get there is advised.


Patan Durbar Square is a magnificent example of Nepal's rich cultural legacy. For everyone interested in the history and culture of the nation, it is a must-visit location because of its distinctive fusion of Newari and Hindu architectural styles, complex carvings, and magnificent monuments. Despite several obstacles, such as urbanization, natural disasters, and neglect, attempts are being made to preserve and repair this significant cultural asset. We must help these initiatives for future generations to be able to recognize and understand the significance of Patan Durbar Plaza. A great approach to guarantee that this cultural heritage asset is protected for years to come is to visit the square sensibly and support regional conservation initiatives.



Travel Writer and adventurer